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ice-core evidence of earliest extensive copper metallurgy in the andes 2700 years ago

by:Deyuan      2020-09-14
The importance of metallurgy to social and economic development is indisputable.
Although copper (Cu)
Crucial to pre-\'s wealthand post-
The beginning of widespread copper metallurgy in South America remains controversial in the Colonial Society of the Andes.
Comprehensive Archaeological findings suggest that for the first time in the Mohe culture of about 200-800 AD, complex copper metallurgy, while mud coal-
Swamp records in southern South America show that the earliest copper smelting pollution may be traced back to around 2000 BC.
Here we propose a 6500-
Copper emission history of Andean plateau based on ice
Core Records of the Limani Glacier in Bolivia, providing the first complete history of the large Glacier
Scale of copper smelting activities in South America.
We found the earliest human Cu contamination in the early 700-50 BC, and attributed the aggravation of copper smelting in South America to the activities of Chiripa and Chavin culture in the central Andes around 2700.
For the first time, this study provides a great deal of evidence for the extensive copper metallurgy in these early cultures.
1999,138.
The 7-meter-long ice core investigated in this study was from Nevado Illimani (
16 ° 37 \'S, 67 ° 64\' W, 6300 µm asl)
In a joint expedition by the Paul Scheller Institute in Switzerland (PSI)
Institute of Development of France (IRD).
Low drilling temperature (
7 ° c at a depth of 10 m, 8.
9 ° c under 65 CUCM and-8.
4 ℃ on the near Rock)
With very few melting features
Records of past levels of air pollution have been kept.
Average annual net accumulation of 0. 58u2009m weq.
Time to allow height-
Chemical records have been resolved.
The time scale of the ice core is obtained through the combination of different dating methods.
These include annual layer counts (ALC)
In the Pb age of 75 m, the known reference horizon of six volcanic eruptions is used (
AD 1258, 1815, 1883, 1963, 1982, 1991)
From the maximum tritium value in AD 1964 and the C age of the lowest 18 m
An era of continuity
Establish a depth relationship by fitting two
A model of glacial flow by reference to the field of view and the parameters of the C date.
The upper 134 CUCM of the ice core used in this study covers the BC 4500-AD 1996 period.
In the vicinity of the volcanic time Mark, until about AD 1800, The Age uncertainty of 1c is estimated to be ≤ 2 years, and the age uncertainty between the volcanic horizon is estimated to be ≤ 5 years.
The error associated with the dating model was ≤ 20 years during AD 0-1800 and ≤ 10 years during BC 4500-0.
Cold Chamber at-20 °c for each core part of PSI (
Length 60-75 cm, diameter 7. 8u2009cm)
Analysis of trace elements.
Inner section with diameter 2. 2u2009cmu2009×u20092.
Cut out 2 cm from the core using improved stainless steel
Steel Band saw with Iron Dragon coated saw Guide and table top.
Using a continuous ice melting device, the final purification is carried out directly with the ice melting head, and the surface potentially polluted ice melting water is opened with the deepest ice melting water in the core.
For the selected core part, it is not possible to melt continuously due to the poor quality of the ice core.
Here, rinse the discrete sample with ultra pure water (
18 m Ω cm quality)
On the 100 Clean Bench, transfer to pre-cleaned high-
Density Polyethylene container.
Subsequently, the samples were treated with ultra-pure HNO and the final concentration was 0. 2u2009N HNO.
Field-mass spectrometry using continuous ice melting inductance coupled plasma region (CIM-ICP-SF-MS)
Use Element 1 (
Hot American film)
For the deepest ice core part (34 to 134u2009m)and Element 2 (
Thermal Science)
For the upper 34m of the application standard program.
The molten water drained from the molten head is acidic to the final concentration of 0.
2 n hno and self-injection mass spectrometer using micro-flow
Aspirated PFA nebulizer for apex q sample import system (
Element science).
Introducing discrete samples into the APEX system with an automatic sampler (
Gilson Inc. 221 XLand ASX-
260, Cetac respectively).
In this study, Ce, Cu, La, Nd, Pb and Sb were analyzed using external calibration and liquid calibration standards.
The calibration correlation coefficient is generally higher than 0. 999.
Before analyzing each ice core part, the program blank concentration was determined by analyzing the same prepared artificial ice bar with a length of about 10 cuccm.
Each ice core section is then corrected through its separate program blank.
The average program blank level of Ce, Cu, La, Nd, Pb and Sb is 0. 15, 10, 0. 1, 0. 08, 3, and 0.
3 pg/g, respectively.
The data will be in NOAA (
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)
Climate Data Center (ice core sites)
After the acceptance of the paper :.
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