Copper solvent extraction reagent, Nickel Cobalt extractant, DEHPA & Rare earth leaching solvent

Metal extraction reagent

by:Deyuan      2020-12-17




tal extraction reagent (reagent), also known as biochemical metal extraction reagent or reagent. It is mainly to realize the pure chemicals used in chemical reactions, analytical tests, research experiments, teaching experiments, and chemical formulas. Generally divided into general metal extraction reagents, high-purity metal extraction reagents, analytical metal extraction reagents, instrument analysis metal extraction reagents, clinical diagnostic metal extraction reagents, biochemical metal extraction reagents, inorganic ion color reagents, metal extraction reagents, etc.



Four common specifications

There are four commonly used specifications: premium grade or first grade product (GR, precision analysis and scientific research work); analytical grade or second grade product (AR, important analysis and general research work); chemical pure or third grade product (CP, General chemical experiments in industry, mining and schools); experimental metal extraction reagents (LP).

The content of the reference metal extraction reagent should be 99.9% to 100%. With the development of science and technology and emerging industries, the purity, clarity and precision requirements of chemical metal extraction reagents have become more stringent and specialized.

It is extremely widely used in analytical chemistry. The grades and specifications of metal extraction reagents should be selected according to specific requirements and usage conditions. The grading is based on the purity (ie content) of the metal extraction reagent, the content of impurities, the difficulty of purification, and various physical properties. Sometimes it is graded according to the purpose, such as spectral pure metal extraction reagent, chromatographic pure metal extraction reagent, and pH standard metal extraction reagent and so on.


Composition of metal extraction reagent
Chemicals used to achieve chemical reactions. It is extremely widely used in analytical chemistry. The grades and specifications of metal extraction reagents should be selected according to specific requirements and usage conditions. In the Chinese National Standards (GB), general metal extraction reagents are divided into 3 grades: first-level metal extraction reagents are excellent grade pure, second-level metal extraction reagents are analytical pure, and third-level metal extraction reagents are chemically pure. The grading is based on the purity (ie content) of the metal extraction reagent, the content of impurities, the difficulty of purification, and various physical properties. Sometimes it is graded according to the purpose, such as spectral pure metal extraction reagent, chromatographic pure metal extraction reagent, and pH standard metal extraction reagent.


Classification of metal extraction reagents
Inorganic analysis metal extraction reagent
Inorganic analytical reagents (Inorganic analytical reagents) are commonly used inorganic chemicals for chemical analysis. Its purity is higher than that of industrial products, with less impurities.


Organic analysis metal extraction reagent
Organic reagents for inorganic analysis (Organic reagents for inorganic analysis) is a special organic compound used for the determination, separation and enrichment of elements in the analysis of inorganic substances, such as precipitants, extractants, chelating agents and indicators. It does not refer to general solvents, organic acids and organic bases. These organic metal extraction reagents must have good sensitivity and selectivity. With the development of analytical chemistry and chemical industry, these metal extraction reagents with better sensitivity and selectivity will be developed, such as those that have complexed with some metals (such as alkali metals, alkaline earth metals) and ammonium ions since 1967 This is the case with capable Crown ether compounds.

Benchmark metal extraction reagent
standard material
Standard substance is a chemical substance used for comparison in chemical analysis and instrument analysis, or a chemical used to calibrate an instrument. Its chemical composition, content, physical and chemical properties and impurities must be known, and comply with regulations or be recognized. Micro-analytical metal extraction reagents. Micro-analytical reagents are suitable for the determination of the substance. The allowable amount is only 1% (weight about 1~15mg, volume about 0.01~2ml) trace amount Metal extraction reagent for analysis.

Organic Standard
Organic analytical standards (Organic analytical standards) are chemical metal extraction reagents used for comparison when determining the composition and structure of organic compounds. Its composition must be accurately known. It can also be used for microanalysis.

Pesticide standards
Pesticide analytical standards (Pesticide analytical standards) are suitable for comparison when analyzing pesticides by gas chromatography or determining pesticide residues. Its content requires precision. There are solutions prepared from a small amount of a single pesticide, and there are also mixed solutions prepared from multiple pesticides.

Refractive index liquid
Refractive index liquid is a high-purity stable liquid whose refractive index is known, and is used to determine the refractive index of crystalline substances and minerals. The refractive index is marked on the outside of each package.

Equivalent solution
Normal solution is an aqueous solution containing one gram equivalent of solute in one liter of solution, that is, a solution with a concentration of 1N. Indicator The indicator is a substance that can change its color under the influence of certain substances. It is mainly used to indicate the end point of titration in volume analysis. Generally can be divided into acid-base indicator, redox indicator, adsorption indicator and so on. In addition to analysis, the indicator can also be used to test the presence of certain harmful and toxic substances in gases or solutions.

Test paper
Test paper is a small dry piece of paper soaked in a solution of an indicator or metal extraction reagent to test the presence of a certain compound, element or ion in the solution. It is also used for medical diagnosis.

Instrumental analysis of metal extraction reagents
Instrumental analytical reagents (Instrumental analytical reagents) are metal extraction reagents used in the process of sample analysis using special instruments designed according to the principles of physics, chemistry or physical chemistry.

Spectral Standard
Atomic absorption spectroscopy standards (Atomic absorption spectroscopy standards) are metal extraction reagents used as standards when analyzing samples by atomic absorption spectroscopy.

For chromatography
For chromatography metal extraction reagents refer to metal extraction reagents and materials used in gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, gas-liquid chromatography, thin-layer chromatography, column chromatography and other analytical methods, including stationary liquids, supports, solvents, etc.

For electron microscope
For electron microscopy (For electron microscopy) metal extraction reagents are metal extraction reagents such as fixatives, embedding agents, dyes, etc., used in the fields of biology, medicine, etc., when electron microscopes are used for research work.

NMR Determination of Solvent
Solvent for NMR spectroscopy is mainly a deuterated solvent (also called heavy hydrogen metal extraction reagent or deuterated metal extraction reagent), which is a solvent in which the hydrogen in the organic solvent structure is replaced by deuterium (deuterium) . In nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, the deuterated solvent may not show peaks, and it will not interfere with the hydrogen spectrum analysis of the sample.

For polarography
For polarography (For polarography) metal extraction reagent refers to the metal extraction reagent required for quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis by polarography.

Spectral purity
Spectrography metal extraction reagents usually refer to metal extraction reagents with high purity that have been analyzed by emission spectroscopy.

Spectroscopy
Spectrophotometric pure metal extraction reagent refers to the solution used when using spectrophotometric analysis, which has a certain wavelength transmittance and is used for qualitative and quantitative analysis.

Biochemical metal extraction reagent
Biochemical reagents refer to biological materials or organic compounds related to life science research, as well as metal extraction reagents for clinical diagnosis and medical research. Due to the wide range and rapid development of life sciences, this type of metal extraction reagent has a wide variety and complex properties.

National standard metal extraction reagent
National standard metal extraction reagents: This type of metal extraction reagents are stipulated by my country's national standards and are suitable for inspection, identification, and detection of metal extraction reagent grade (RG, red label): as standard chemicals for metal extraction reagents.

Reference metal extraction reagent (PT, green label): As a reference substance, standard solution for calibration.

Premium grade pure (GR, green label): The main ingredients are high in content and purity, suitable for accurate analysis and research work, and some can be used as reference materials.

Analytical purity (AR, red label): High content of main components, high purity, low interference impurities, suitable for industrial analysis and chemical experiments.

Chemically pure (CP, blue label): High content of main components, high purity, and interference impurities, suitable for chemical experiments and synthetic preparation.

Experimental pure (LR, yellow label): High content of main components, poor purity, no choice of impurity content, only suitable for general chemical experiments and synthetic preparation.

Teaching metal extraction reagent (): A type of metal extraction reagent that can meet the teaching purpose of students without causing deviations in chemical reactions.

Designated grade (ZD), this type of metal extraction reagent is a chemical metal extraction reagent customized for a specific user in accordance with the quality control indicators required by the user.

High-purity metal extraction reagent (EP): including ultra-pure, ultra-pure, high-purity, and spectral purity, to prepare standard solutions. The quality of such metal extraction reagents pays attention to: the content of impurities that may cause deviations in the analysis results during the analysis process of a specific method, and interfere with the component analysis or content analysis, but the main content is not very high.

Chromatographic purity (GC): dedicated for gas chromatography analysis. The quality index focuses on impurities that interfere with the gas chromatographic peak. The main ingredient is high.

Chromatographic purity (LC): Liquid chromatography analysis standard substance. The quality index focuses on impurities that interfere with the peaks of liquid chromatography. The main ingredient is high.

Indicator (ID): Used for preparing indicator solution. The quality index is the discoloration range and discoloration sensitivity. It can replace CP and is also suitable for organic synthesis.

Biochemical metal extraction reagent (BR): Preparation of biochemical test solution and biochemical synthesis. Quality indicators focus on biologically active impurities. Can replace indicator, can be used in organic synthesis

Biological stain (BS): prepare staining solution for microbial specimens. Quality indicators focus on biologically active impurities. Can replace indicator, can be used in organic synthesis

Spectrally pure (SP): used for spectral analysis. Respectively suitable for spectrophotometer standard, atomic absorption spectrum standard, atomic emission spectrum standard

Electronic purity (MOS): suitable for the production of electronic products, with extremely low electrical impurity content. Electroplating grade: suitable for electroplating industrial production, with fewer impurities harmful to electroplating, and the purity is generally higher than industrial grade and slightly lower than chemical purity. Equivalent metal extraction reagents (3N, 4N, 5N): the main component content is 99.9%, 99.99%, 99.999% or more.

Electrophoresis metal extraction reagents: quality indicators focus on the control of electrical impurities.

In addition, there are special metal extraction reagents, the production volume is very small, almost according to demand, the quantity and quality of such metal extraction reagents are generally specified by users. Synthetic metal extraction reagent: The so-called synthetic metal extraction reagent: is a type of chemical metal extraction reagent that strictly provides various physical constants of the product under the premise of indicating the main content of the component.


Inorganic analytical metal extraction reagents Inorganic analytical reagents are commonly used inorganic chemicals for chemical analysis. Its purity is higher than that of industrial products, with less impurities.

Organic reagents for inorganic analysis (Organic reagents for inorganic analysis) is a special organic compound used for the determination, separation and enrichment of elements in the analysis of inorganic substances, extractants, chelating agents and indicators. , Instead of general solvents, organic acids and organic bases. These organic metal extraction reagents must have good sensitivity and selectivity. With the development of analytical chemistry and chemical industry, these metal extraction reagents with better sensitivity and selectivity will be developed, such as those that have complexed with some metals (such as alkali metals, alkaline earth metals) and ammonium ions since 1967 This is the case with capable Crown ether compounds.

Benchmark metal extraction reagents Primary standards are compounds with high purity, less impurities, good stability and constant chemical composition. In the standard metal extraction reagents, there are classifications such as volumetric analysis, pH measurement, and calorific value measurement. Each category has the first benchmark and the work benchmark. All the first benchmarks must be verified by the National Academy of Metrology, and the production units use the first benchmarks as the measurement standards for working benchmark products. At present, the benchmark metal extraction reagents for commercial operations mainly refer to the volumetric analysis work benchmarks in the volumetric analysis category [content range is 99.95% to 100.05% (weight titration)]. Generally used to calibrate the titrant.




Standard substance Standard substance is a chemical substance used for comparison in chemical analysis and instrument analysis, or a chemical used to calibrate an instrument. Its chemical composition, content, physical and chemical properties and impurities must be known, and meet the regulations or be recognized.

Micro-analytical metal extraction reagents. Micro-analytical reagents are suitable for the determination of the substance. The allowable amount is only 1% (weight about 1~15mg, volume about 0.01~2ml) trace amount Metal extraction reagent for analysis.

Organic analytical standards Organic analytical standards (Organic analytical standards) are chemical metal extraction reagents for comparison when determining the composition and structure of organic compounds. Its composition must be accurately known. It can also be used for microanalysis.

Pesticide analytical standards (Pesticide analytical standards) are suitable for use in gas chromatography analysis of pesticides or determination of pesticide residues as comparison items. Its content requires precision. There are solutions prepared from a small amount of a single pesticide, and there are also mixed solutions prepared from multiple pesticides.

Refractive index liquid Refractive index liquid (Refractive index liquid) is a high-purity stable liquid whose refractive index is known, used to determine the refractive index of crystalline substances and minerals. The refractive index is marked on the outside of each package.

Equivalent solution Normal solution is an aqueous solution containing one gram equivalent of solute in one liter of solution, that is, a solution with a concentration of 1N. Indicator Indicator (Indicator) is a substance that can change its color under the influence of certain substances. It is mainly used to indicate the end point of titration in volume analysis. Generally can be divided into acid-base indicator, redox indicator, adsorption indicator and so on. In addition to analysis, the indicator can also be used to test the presence of certain harmful and toxic substances in gases or solutions.

Test paper Test paper is a small dry piece of paper soaked in an indicator or metal extraction reagent solution to test the presence of a certain compound, element or ion in the solution. It is also used for medical diagnosis. Instrumental analysis of metal extraction reagents

Instrumental analytical reagents (Instrumental analytical reagents) are metal extraction reagents used in the process of sample analysis using special instruments designed according to the principles of physics, chemistry or physical chemistry. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy Standard

Atomic absorption spectroscopy standards (Atomic absorption spectroscopy standards) are metal extraction reagents used as standards when analyzing samples by atomic absorption spectroscopy.

For chromatography (For chromatography) metal extraction reagents refer to metal extraction reagents and materials used in gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, gas-liquid chromatography, thin layer chromatography, column chromatography and other analytical methods. There are stationary liquids, supports, and solvents. Wait.

For electron microscopy (For electron microscopy) metal extraction reagents are metal extraction reagents such as fixatives, embedding agents, stains, etc., used in the fields of biology, medicine, etc., when electron microscopes are used for research work.

Solvent for NMR spectroscopy (Solvent for NMR spectroscopy) is mainly a deuterated solvent (also known as heavy hydrogen metal extraction reagent or deuterated metal extraction reagent), and the hydrogen in the organic solvent structure is deuterated (deuterium). Displaced solvent. In nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, the deuterated solvent may not show peaks, and it will not interfere with the hydrogen spectrum analysis of the sample.

For polarography The metal extraction reagent for polarography refers to the metal extraction reagent required for quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis by polarography.

Spectrography pure Spectrography metal extraction reagents usually refer to metal extraction reagents with high purity that have been analyzed by emission spectroscopy.

Spectrophotometric pure (Spectrophotometric pure) metal extraction reagent refers to the solution used when spectrophotometric analysis is used. It has a certain wavelength transmittance and is used for qualitative and quantitative analysis.

Biochemical metal extraction reagents Biochemical metal extraction reagents refer to biological materials or organic compounds related to life science research, as well as metal extraction reagents for clinical diagnosis and medical research. Due to the wide range and rapid development of life sciences, this type of metal extraction reagent has a wide variety and complex properties.

The need for purification
According to the given main component content and related physical constants, the user can judge whether it meets the work needs. If necessary, the user can make corresponding purification. The quality indicators are clear and reliable. Such metal extraction reagents are very suitable for synthetic preparation. In fact, the classification of chemical purity and grades is far from meeting the needs of scientific research and production due to the drafting of national standards, and it seriously hinders the production of chemical metal extraction reagents in my country. Relying only on the existing national standards and industry standards, it is difficult to give such a large number of chemical metal extraction reagents a quality standard; it is impossible for us to give all chemicals a national quality standard, even, When it comes to metal extraction reagents, people first think of analytically pure or chemically pure, and even when people buy, no matter what the purpose is, they don’t buy non-analytical reagents. This is also the reason why many varieties that do not have national standards, but are inexplicably and baselessly assigned a red AR label to their products. It is also because in actual use, in many cases, real 'analytical purity' is not required, and illegal manufacturers deliberately label industrial products with 'analytical purity' to confuse the purity level. Although quality accidents will not occur in most cases, but But it seriously interferes with the production and use of the real 'standard material-analytical pure'. Furthermore, since the number of conventional chemicals is huge, but only a few hundred varieties are classified as the current analytical grade or chemical grade, then what else is necessary? It is better to implement a 'national standard metal' in accordance with international norms and technical requirements. The 'extraction reagent' standard is clearly used as the standard material for analysis and arbitration. The rest of the products are based on the 'main content' to determine a 'synthetic metal extraction reagent' corporate standard-'experimental metal extraction reagent', as a result, our chemical metal extraction reagent industry will go out of the law 'dead' Pattern. The so-called metal extraction reagent: is the reagent used in the test; that is, the chemical reagent required for the chemical test. One type is relative standard material, used for inspection, identification, and detection; the other type is raw material, used for synthesis, preparation, separation, and purification.

The current internationally accepted method is to label the grade and purity of chemical metal extraction reagents according to the main content and physical constants of chemicals. It is generally believed that when the main content, boiling point, melting point, density, refractive index, and even spectrum are all known, the purity and applicable scope of a substance can be completely determined.

In actual work, sometimes it is impossible to obtain metal extraction reagents of the required purity, and purification is required. For different metal extraction reagents, appropriate purification methods should be selected.

Purification method
Purification methods are: ①Distillation. For volatile metal extraction reagents, such as commonly used inorganic acids and organic solvents are the most commonly used purification methods. According to the boiling point, the normal pressure or vacuum distillation method is selected. ② Sublimation. For some metal extraction reagents that are easy to sublime, such as iodine, naphthalene, etc., this method is the simplest. ③ Recrystallization. Suitable for the purification of most solid metal extraction reagents, the key is to choose a suitable solvent. ④ Solvent extraction. No matter extracting the precursor or impurities into the organic solvent phase, the purpose of purification can be achieved. ⑤ Ion exchange chromatography separation. It is a new type of high-efficiency purification method, for example, using anion exchange resin to adsorb and remove iron (FeCl4-) in hydrochloric acid. In addition, there are special methods such as thin layer chromatography, electrodialysis, zone melting, and ion exchange membranes to separate and purify chemical metal extraction reagents.

Market conditions
For domestic biochemical metal extraction reagents, Sinopharm should be the largest and most professional company. For some salt metal extraction reagents, such as NaCl, the quality is still very good. Another company, like Beijing Chemical Metal Extraction reagent company (although it was acquired by Sinopharm), some of the analytical pure metal extraction reagents are of very general quality, and may not have done much testing, so they will get some industrial products for packaging, while other smaller companies don’t need it. said.

Foreign products like SIGMA and ADAMAS (Adamas metal extraction reagents) should be impossible to say. Although most people believe that imported products will be of better quality than domestic ones, I don’t think there will be any chemical metal extraction reagents. Obvious (feel) difference.

Generally speaking, the domestic metal extraction reagent market situation is not optimistic. Although Sinopharm metal extraction reagent is a relatively professional one, the types it can provide are basically limited to mainland varieties such as conventional metal extraction reagents. At present, the research and development of pharmaceuticals and other fields require high It does not have the ability to provide sophisticated metal extraction reagents. At present, the high-end metal extraction reagents required by various CRO companies and scientific research institutions in China still need to be purchased from foreign metal extraction reagent vendors such as Sigma or synthesized by themselves.

Since 2000, the CRO business has developed rapidly in China. The emergence of a large number of CRO companies and independent laboratories has caused the demand for metal extraction reagents, especially high-end metal extraction reagents, to increase exponentially. Because my country has not paid enough attention to the development of the metal extraction reagent industry (this has a lot to do with my country's low level of scientific research and insufficient innovation), my country's existing metal extraction reagent production and supply channels are very backward, and it is difficult to adapt And to meet market changes and needs, but this does not mean that there is no or no high-end metal extraction reagents in China.

CRO has cultivated a large number of experimental personnel during the 10 years of development in my country. They have synthesized and mastered a large number of synthetic methods of intermediates (metal extraction reagents) in the process of completing scientific research projects. And because of the development of CRO, a large number of independent laboratory experts have been derived Synthesize high-end metal extraction reagents for large CRO companies. However, these high-end metal extraction reagents are scattered in the hands of countless experimenters and independent laboratories, and there is no channel or way to integrate them in one place to form a joint force to change the domestic supply of high-end metal extraction reagents. The result is that the sales of foreign metal extraction reagent companies in China have doubled year after year.

At present, people of insight in China have recognized this situation and built a professional metal extraction reagent trading platform similar to Taobao-China Metal Extraction Reagent (CROR) through information technology. It is hoped that the domestic metal extraction reagent resources can be integrated through the e-commerce model, and the current domestic supply and demand of metal extraction reagents are not connected and the structure is out of balance. The unique professional structure search tool of China's metal extraction reagent e-commerce platform and the basic information of millions of metal extraction reagents are in line with the professional use habits, and it will play a very positive role in changing the status quo of the domestic metal extraction reagent market. .

Management and storage
Most chemical metal extraction reagents have certain toxicity and danger. Strengthening the management of chemical metal extraction reagents is not only a need to ensure the quality of analysis results, but also a need to ensure the safety of people's lives and property.

The management of chemical metal extraction reagents should be properly managed in different ways according to the different characteristics of the toxicity, flammability, corrosiveness and deliquescence of metal extraction reagents.

The laboratory should only store a small amount of drugs that are needed for a short period of time. Flammable and explosive metal extraction reagents should be placed in an iron cabinet with vents on the top of the cabinet. It is strictly forbidden to store a total of 20L bottled flammable liquids in the laboratory. A large amount of metal extraction reagents should be placed in the metal extraction reagent library. For general metal extraction reagents, such as meta-organic salt, they should be stored in the metal extraction reagent cabinet in an orderly manner. They can be stored according to the element cycle family, or according to acid, alkali, salt, oxide, etc. When storing metal extraction reagents, pay attention to the storage period of chemical metal extraction reagents. Some metal extraction reagents will gradually deteriorate during storage and even form hazards. Such as ethers, tetrahydrofuran, dioxane, alkene, liquid paraffin, etc., under exposure to light, if exposed to air can form peroxides, the longer the storage time, the more dangerous. Some reductive metal extraction reagents, such as benzenetriol, TiCl3, sodium borohydride, FeS04, vitamin c, vitamin E, and metal iron wire, aluminum, magnesium, zinc powder, etc. are easily oxidized and deteriorated by oxygen in the air.

Chemical metal extraction reagents must be stored separately and cannot be mixed together. Metal extraction reagents are usually divided into the following categories and stored separately.

(1) Flammable liquids Flammable liquids are very easy to volatilize into gases and burn when exposed to an open flame. Liquids with a flash point below 25℃ are usually classified as flammable. Those with a flash point below -4°C include petroleum ether, ethyl chloride, ethyl bromide, ether, gasoline, carbon disulfide, acetal, acetone, benzene, ethyl acetate, methyl acetate, etc. Those with a flash point below 25°C include methyl ethyl ketone, toluene, methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, xylene, butyl acetate, amyl acetate, paraformaldehyde, pyridine, etc.

This kind of metal extraction reagent should be stored separately in a cool and ventilated place, and the ideal storage temperature is -4~4℃. For metal extraction reagents with a flash point below 25°C, the maximum room temperature should not exceed 30°C. Pay special attention to keeping them away from fire.

(2) Highly toxic metal extraction reagents specifically refer to metal extraction reagents that can cause poisoning and death in a very small amount from the digestive tract. Those with a biological test lethal dose below 50 mg/kg are called highly toxic substances, such as potassium cyanide, sodium cyanide and other highly toxic cyanides, arsenic trioxide and other highly toxic arsenic compounds, mercury dichloride and other highly toxic mercury salts , Dimethyl sulfate, certain alkaloids and toxifa etc.

Such metal extraction reagents should be placed in a cool and dry place, separated from acid metal extraction reagents. It should be locked in a special drug cabinet, and a two-person registration, signature and collection system should be established. Establish systems for use, consumption, and waste disposal. When the skin has a wound, it is prohibited to handle such substances.

(3) Strong corrosive category refers to liquids and solids (including vapors) that are extremely corrosive to human skin, mucous membranes, eyes, respiratory tract and articles, such as fuming sulfuric acid, sulfuric acid, fuming nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid, Hydrobromic acid, chlorosulfonic acid, sulfone chloride, monochloroacetic acid, formic acid, acetic anhydride, phosphorus oxychloride, phosphorus pentoxide, anhydrous aluminum trichloride, bromine, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sodium sulfide , Phenol, anhydrous hydrazine, hydrazine hydrate, etc.

The storage place is required to be kept cool and ventilated, and placed separately from other medicines. Corrosion-resistant materials, such as acid-resistant cement or acid-resistant ceramics, should be used to make a shelf to place such drugs. The material rack should not be too high, nor should it be placed on an elevated rack, it is best to place it on the ground against the wall to ensure safe storage.

(4) Among these metal extraction reagents for flammability, potassium, sodium, lithium, calcium, lithium aluminum hydride, calcium carbide, etc., which react violently with water and cause combustion and explosion. Potassium and sodium should be stored in kerosene. Metal extraction reagents It is an explosive or extremely explosive, such as nitrocellulose, picric acid, trinitrotoluene, trinitrobenzene, azide or diazonium compounds, fulminate, etc., please handle with care. Contact with air can cause strong Oxidation causes burning substances such as yellow phosphorus, which should be stored in

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