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The reaction liquid extraction separation of organic phase and water phase basic principle and important parameters

by:Deyuan      2020-09-04
Aqueous phase reaction liquid extraction separation of organic phase is to use the miscibility with water is not organic solvents with the test solution, at this time, some components in organic phase, other components remain in water phase, so as to achieve the purpose of separation and enrichment. If the components are colored compounds by extraction, then you can take for spectrophotometric determination of organic fitting for, this method is called extraction photometric method. Extraction photometric method has high sensitivity and selectivity. The essence of extraction process: according to different material property of water, through proper treatment substances from water phase extraction to the organic phase, achieve finally separation.
hydrophilic substances: soluble in water and soluble in organic solvents. Hydrophobic or hydrophilic substances: a poorly soluble in water and soluble in organic solvents. Partition coefficient and allocation than
( 1) Distribution coefficient
the distribution coefficient of the meaning of: from the water phase extraction by organic solvent solute A, if the solute A two phase, and the same type of body balance the solute in the activity of organic phase and water phase of activity is known as the partition coefficient, expressed in KD. Extraction system and constant temperature, KD is a constant. Can use concentration instead of activity in the dilute solution.
( 2)
example: CCl4 - — Water extraction system of extraction OsO4 Os (in the water phase VIII) With OsO4, OsO52 - And HOsO5 - Three forms exist in the organic phase with OsO4 and ( OsO4) 4 two forms exist.
( 3) Than
when the solute distribution coefficient and distribution in the two phases in the same single form, and the solution is relatively thin, KD = D. Such as: CCl4 - — Water extraction body
system extraction I2 KD and D are not equal in the complex system.
distribution coefficient and extraction system and temperature, and the distribution ratio in addition to the related to temperature and extraction system, also related to such factors as the acidity and the concentration of the solute.
( 4) Extraction percentage
in actual work, the common extracting percentage E to represent the degree of finish. Extraction percentage of meaning: material is the ratio of extraction to the organic phase.

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